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贵金属锭

第05期 | 2023年2月07日

《通胀削减法案》有助于实现氢经济

《通胀削减法案》将美国置于氢经济的前沿。去年通过的《通胀削减法 案》(IRA)中的税收抵免旨在降低绿色氢生产成本。根据新法律,清洁 氢工厂最多可获得10年(2023-2032年)每千克氢气3美元的生产信贷, 对低碳排放工厂给予优惠,作为130亿美元氢气资金(来源:麦肯锡公司) 的一部分,用于刺激供需。到期日促使项目快速上线。低碳税收信贷分级 有利于可再生电力,使用Ir-Pt催化剂的质子交换膜(PEM)技术比碱性或 固体氧化物替代品更适合可再生电力。

其他国家的政府也在寻求推动使用绿色氢气。上周发布的新的欧盟绿色 交易产业计划旨在提供更快的融资渠道,并减少绿色技术(包括绿色氢) 的官僚障碍。计划包括对绿色氢气生产商的竞标,以确保10年内每公斤氢 气的固定溢价。之后,生产补贴措施也会被纳入考量。初始资金总额将达 到8亿欧元,以帮助实现REPowerEU的绿色氢生产目标。REPowerEU是欧盟委 员会目前的绿色氢路线图,其中包括到2025年增加17.5GW电解槽制造能力 的宏伟目标。预计到2022年底,全球总装机容量为15.2GW(来源:彭博 社),其中约40%为PEM。

补贴和税收减免使最初的增长阶段得以实现。大多数正在进行的、基于 PEM的制氢项目都是等待最终投资决定或已在开发初期的预建设项目(来 源:IEA)。短期内可用的税收抵免(美国)和资金(欧盟)应增加项目 完成的可能性。与其他颜色的氢相比,绿色氢的广泛应用将受限于相对较 高的成本和狭窄的终端用途。通过补贴和税收减免人为降低生产成本,可 能会促进氢燃料电池移动性等新终端用途的开发和成熟,从而在当前激励 措施结束后,增加绿色氢的需求。最有可能开发氢动力的行业是重型道路 车辆和海上运输,其中电气化更为困难,但仍需要减少二氧化碳排放。

节约铱用量还可以确保满足需求。作为原生铂开采的副产品,铱产量相对 缺乏弹性。风险在于,随着政府资金加速采用电解槽,铱的供应将赶不上 需求的增长。正在进行研发,以减少电解槽膜的金属用量,这将使电解槽 的产能得以扩大,并确保矿山供应不会成为绿色氢气实施的瓶颈。

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