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市场聚焦

  • Edition 36 - 21 October 2020

前景堪忧到充满希望——欧洲在氢经济中引领铂族金属需求

预计今年所有燃料电池和电解槽技术的铂金需求约为6万盎司,然后从2020年代中期开始迅速增长,到2030年将达 到42万盎司。近期的需求很可能受到电解槽生产“绿色”氢的产能增长驱动,其中部分电解槽依靠铂和铱催化剂,工 业和运输业的脱碳将为燃料电池中的铂和钌带来更长远的前景。

上周,现代氢动力(HHM)向瑞士客户交付了世界上第一辆量产的燃料电池重型卡车。HHM是现代和H2能源的合 资企业。XCIENT燃料电池卡车由190千瓦的氢燃料电池系统驱动,行驶里程约为400公里(400公里的行程代表了欧盟 62%的出行距离)。包括瑞士最大连锁超市在内的客户将以按次付费的方式租赁卡车,这种方式使得用户在拥有这项新 技术之前可以先试驾。随着清洁交通需求的增长,到2021年,XCIENT燃料电池卡车的生产能力将扩大到每年2000辆。

短期重型车辆(HDV)的潜力比轻型车辆更大。燃料电池汽车的推出是由HDV主导的,预计动力系统成本的降低和 氢气生产、储存和分配的改进很容易应用到轻型汽车。相比汽车,氢燃料卡车通常在更有限、更明确的路线上行驶, 因此可以需要更少的加氢站,有利于HDV。与纯电动卡车相比,它们具有更大的续航里程和更短的充能(加氢)时间, 以及与传统车辆相比的车辆重量和承载能力。

从长期来看,氢经济将是铂金需求增长的最大推动力。欧洲的铂金市场在过去几年中一直处于困境,原因是柴油 车的市场份额不断萎缩,而今年由于Covid-19的影响,汽车购买量大幅下降,更是雪上加霜。不过,受该地区电解槽 产能增长的驱动,市场前景看好。欧盟已将氢作为其绿色协议的核心部分,并制定了明确的战略,以帮助实现2050年 前实现净零排放的目标。预计到2050年,氢在欧洲能源结构中的比重将从目前的不足2%增长到13-14%。

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