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  • 2021年第38期 - 2021年10月26日

氢发动机:铱受益,铂金有增有减

氢内燃机(ICE)可能是未来大型车辆、非道路和固定设备的动力来源。氢气可以在内燃机中燃烧,内燃机有一些标准的发动机部件,并配有氢燃料喷射和点火系统。这意味着,利用现有技术和基础设施,制造和维修变得简单明了。氢发动机的尺寸和成本与柴油发动机相似,而燃料电池目前要昂贵得多,电池也会大大增加卡车或挖掘机的重量。工作日的大部分时间非道路设备都在运行,甚至可能两班倒,这意味着充电所需的频率和时间也使电池不适合使用。

氢发动机可能不需要尾气催化剂,从而消除了一些铂族金属需求。可能还是存在一些NOx排放,但可以控制发动机温度限制这些排放,必要时可使用选择性催化还原(无铂族金属)。美国、欧洲和日本对非道路设备的排放进行了立法,产生了一些尾气催化剂的铂族金属需求(约16万盎司铂,约4万盎司钯)。

如果氢发动机是重型机械脱碳的方法,铂仍将受益。使机械部门适当脱碳需要绿色的氢,即使用电解槽通过可再生能源生产。其中,质子交换膜(PEM)电解槽使用铂(和铱)作为催化剂。电解槽的额外需求可能会超过车辆催化剂铂需求的损失。铂或铱也可以由过去的柴油发动机变为现在仍需要火花塞的氢发动机中获益。目前,电解槽中铂的使用量只有几千盎司,但随着氢经济的发展,预计铂的使用量将迅速增长。

氢发动机很快可以使用。JCB正在投资1亿英镑开发用于非道路设备的氢发动机,首批车辆预计将于2022年底上市。罗尔斯·罗伊斯正在开发用于发电的燃气发动机,目前可使用10%的氢气,2023年可使用100%的氢气。短期内,销售的限制因素可能是氢气的供应。

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